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BriEOD
05-16-2009, 08:08 AM
A Cyber-Attack on an American City
Bruce Perens

>
> Just after midnight on Thursday, April 9, unidentified attackers climbed
> down four manholes serving the Northern California city of Morgan Hill
> and cut eight fiber cables in what appears to have been an organized
> attack on the electronic infrastructure of an American city. Its
> implications, though startling, have gone almost un-reported.
>
> That attack demonstrated a severe fault in American infrastructure: its
> centralization. The city of Morgan Hill and parts of three counties lost
> 911 service, cellular mobile telephone communications, land-line
> telephone, DSL internet and private networks, central station fire and
> burglar alarms, ATMs, credit card terminals, and monitoring of critical
> utilities. In addition, resources that should not have failed, like the
> local hospital's internal computer network, proved to be dependent on
> external resources, leaving the hospital with a "paper system" for the
> day.
>
> Commerce was disrupted in a 100-mile swath around the community, from
> San Jose to Gilroy and Monterey. Cash was king for the day as ATMs and
> credit card systems were down, and many found they didn't have
> sufficient cash on hand. Services employees dependent on communication
> were sent home. The many businesses providing just-in-time operations to
> agriculture could not communicate.
>
> In technical terms, the area was partitioned from the surrounding
> internet. What was the attackers goal? Nothing has been revealed.
> Robbery? With wires cut, silent alarms were useless. Manipulation of the
> stock market? Companies, brokerages, and investors in the very wealthy
> community were cut off. Mayhem, murder, terrorism? But nothing like that
> seems to have happened. Some theorize unhappy communications workers,
> given the apparent knowledge of the community's infrastructure necessary
> for this attack. Or did the attackers simply want to teach us a lesson?
>
> Although they are silent on the topic, I hope those responsible for
> emergency services, be they in business or government, are learning the
> lessons of Morgan Hill. The first lesson is what stayed up: stand-alone
> radio systems and not much else. Cell phones failed. Cellular towers can
> not, in general, connect phone calls on their own, even if both phones
> are near the same tower. They communicate with a central switching
> computer to operate, and when that system doesn't respond, they're
> useless. But police and fire authorities still had internal
> communications via two-way radio.
>
> Realizing that they'd need more two-way radio, authorities dispatched
> police to wake up the emergency coordinator of the regional ham radio
> club, and escort him to the community hospital with his equipment. Area
> hams dispatched ambulances and doctors, arranged for essential supplies,
> and relayed emergency communications out of the area to those with
> working telephones.
>
> That the hospital's local network failed is evidence of over-dependence
> on centralized services. The development of the internet's
> communications protocols was sponsored by the U.S. Department of
> Defense, and they were designed to survive large failures. But it still
> takes local engineering skill to implement robust networking services.
> Most companies stop when something works, not considering whether or how
> it will work in an emergency.
>
> Institutional networks, even those of emergency services providers, are
> rarely tested for operation while disconnected from the outside world.
> Many such networks depend on outside services to match host names to
> network addresses, and thus stop operating the moment they are
> disconnected from the internet. Even when the internal network stays up,
> email is often hosted on some outside service, and thus becomes
> unavailable. Programs that depend on an internet connection for license
> verification will fail, and this feature is often found in server
> software. Commercial VoIP telephone systems will stay up for internal
> use if properly engineered to be independent of outside resources, but
> consumer VoIP equipment will fail.
>
> This should lead managers of critical services to reconsider their
> dependence on software-as-a-service rather than local servers. Having
> your email live at Google means you don't have to manage it, but you can
> count on it being unavailable if your facility loses its internet
> connection. The same is true for any web service. And that's not
> acceptable if you work at a hospital or other emergency services
> provider, and really shouldn't be accepted at any company that expects
> to provide services during an infrastructure failure. Email from others
> in your office should continue to operate.
>
> What to do? Local infrastructure is the key. The services that you
> depend on, all critical web applications and email, should be based at
> your site. They need to be able to operate without access to databases
> elsewhere, and to resynchronize with the rest of your operation when the
> network comes back up. This takes professional IT engineering to
> implement, and will cost more to manage, but won't leave you sitting on
> your hands in an emergency.
>
> Communications will be a problem during any emergency. Two-way radios
> have, to a great extent, been replaced by cellular "walkie-talkie"
> services that can not be relied upon to work during an infrastructure
> failure. Real two-way radios, stand-alone pager systems, and radio
> repeaters that enable regional communications are still available to the
> governments and businesses that endure the expense of planning,
> acquiring, maintaining, and testing them. Corporate disaster planners
> should look into such facilities. Municipalities, regardless of their
> size, should not consider abandoning such resources in favor of the
> less-robust cellular services.
>
> Satellite telephones can be expected to keep operating, although they
> too depend on a land infrastructure. They are expensive, and they
> frequently fail in emergency situations simply because their users,
> administrative officials rather than technical staff, fail to keep them
> charged and have no back-up power resource once they are discharged.
>
> A big plus for Morgan Hill was that emergency services had an
> well-practiced partnership with the local hams. Since you can never
> budget for all of the communications technicians you'll need in an
> emergency, using these volunteers is a must for any civil authority.
> They come with their own equipment, they run their own emergency drills
> and thus are ready to serve, and they are tinkerers able to improvise
> the communications system needed to meet a particular emergency.
>
> Which brings us to the issue of testing. No disaster system can be
> expected to work without regular testing, not only of the physical
> infrastructure provided for an emergency but of the people who are
> expected to use it, in its disaster mode. But such testing takes much
> time and work, and tends to trigger any lurking infrastructure problems,
> creating outages of its own. It's much better to work such things out as
> a result of testing than to meet them during a real disaster.
>
> We should also consider whether it might be necessary to harden some of
> the local infrastructure of our communities. The old Bell System used to
> arrange cables in a ring around a city, so that a cut in any one
> location could be routed around. It's not clear how much modern
> telephone companies have continued that practice. It might not have
> helped in Morgan Hill, as the attackers apparently even disabled an
> unused cable that could have been used to recover from the broken
> connections.
>
> Surprisingly, manholes don't usually have locks. They rely on the weight
> of the cover and general revulsion to keep people out. They are more
> likely to provide alarms for flooding than intrusion. Utility poles are
> similarly accessible. Much of our infrastructure isn't protected by
> anything so tough as a manhole cover. Underground cables are easily
> accessible in surface posts and "tombstones", boxes often located in
> residential neighborhoods. These can be wrecked with a screwdriver.
>
> Most buried cable cuts are caused by operating a back-hoe without first
> using one of the "call before digging" services to mark out the location
> of all of the buried utilities. What's done accidentally can also be
> done deliberately, and the same services that help diggers avoid
> utilities might point them out to an attacker.
>
> The most surprising news from Morgan Hill is that they survived
> reasonably unscathed. That they did so is a result of emergency planning
> in place for California's four seasons: fire, floods, earthquakes, and
> riots. Most communities don't practice disaster plans as intensively.
>
> Will there be another Morgan Hill? Definitely. And the next time it
> might happen to a denser community that won't be so astonishingly able
> to sustain the trouble using its two-way radios and hams. The next time,
> it might be connected with some other event, be it crime or terrorism.
> Company and government officers take notice: the only way you'll fare
> well is if you start planning now.
>
>

Monica
05-16-2009, 08:18 AM
Brian if it weren't you posting I wouldn't take that seriously.

There is a FO line buried in my back yard that runs from Maine to Fla and apparantly is the most important on the east coast. When I was building my barn we asked the AT&T rep what would happen if we accidentally damaged it. He said it'd be fixed in about an hour and would cost us about $9 million. I said "is that all.....may as well be 9 billion, cause I don't have that kind of insurance.."

BriEOD
05-16-2009, 08:30 AM
We could table a discussion for hours about how this small isolated example is part of a much larger problem set. I received that message through work. While I don't want to go into to much on the open net, I can tell you our Achilles heel is our dependence on our cyber networks (albeit TCP/IP, etc).

About 10-20 years ago some Chinese military leaders decided that the center of gravity for the US, and in-turn the US military, was dependence on computer networks. In WW2 we did this to Germany by deciding their center of gravity was ball bearing factories. As such, they (China) made it a priority to develop capabilities to exploit and disrupt US networks. About 2 years ago a US government agency published a report and briefed the Congress that Chinese actors had removed enough sensitive data from US military and government networks to stack 8.5 x 11" pieces of paper from the Earth's surface to the moon and back.

Don't think the terrorists haven't figured this out as well.

Scary stuff....

bigmac
05-16-2009, 08:48 AM
Scary. We should think about finding some people to start working on hacking China's electronic infrastructure. And maybe some other countries too. I'm going to forward that article to the NSA.

;)

BriEOD
05-16-2009, 08:52 AM
Scary. We should think about finding some people to start working on hacking China's electronic infrastructure. And maybe some other countries too. I'm going to forward that article to the NSA.

;)

I think there are some people way ahead of you on this initiative Mac. ;) But, good thinking and I concur.

NSA...No Such Agency. :D

Sneakers was on the other night. Good flick and ahead of its time.

bigmac
05-16-2009, 08:59 AM
I think there are some people way ahead of you on this initiative Mac. ;)

What a relief!



NSA...No Such Agency. :D

Explains why my letters keep getting returned.

east tx skier
05-16-2009, 09:02 AM
Hey, Brian, not to change the subject too drastically, but are you in vinyl yet or what?

BriEOD
05-16-2009, 09:14 AM
Hey, Brian, not to change the subject too drastically, but are you in vinyl yet or what?
PM at ya...........

TX.X-30 fan
05-16-2009, 02:14 PM
I have gone from regular to heavy duty foil for my yamika

TMCNo1
05-16-2009, 03:35 PM
I'm gettin' ret to dig, http://www.hardenedstructures.com/2050727/default.aspx